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  1. It’s “entropy” is the missing information per event in an inference that is made by a model of a physical system to the conditional outcomes of the events of the future for this system.

    The so-called “Problem of Induction” is solved in the rule that the induced model expresses all of the available information but no more. This problem was solved by the late theoretical physicist Ronald Arlie Chrstensen and is described by him in the seven volume “Entropy Minimax Sourcebook,” circa 1980.

    After being published, this solution was ignored by most builders of models of physical systems. Instead, they continued to select these inferences, as they had done in the past, by the intuitive rules of thumb that are called “heuristics.”

    However, in each instance in which a particular heuristic selected a particular inference for being made by a model, a difference heuristic selected a different inference for being made by this model. In this way, the Method of Heuristics violated the Law of Non-Contradiction (LNC).

    The LNC was amongst Aristotle’s three Laws of Thought. Use of the Method of Heuristics in the construction of models of physical systems that express more than the available information or less. When they express less than the available information these models waste information. When they express more than the available information these models fabricate information.

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